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What is Detection limit?

In analytical chemistry, the detection limit, lower limit of detection, or LOD (limit of detection), is the lowest quantity of a substance that can be distinguished from the absence of that substance (a blank value) within a stated confidence limit (generally 1%)

The detection limit is estimated from the mean of the blank, the standard deviation of the blank and some confidence factor. Another consideration that affects the detection limit is the accuracy of the model used to predict concentration from the raw analytical signal.

There are a number of different detection limits that are commonly used. These include the instrument detection limit (IDL), the method detection limit (MDL), the practical quantification limit (PQL), and the limit of quantification (LOQ). Even when the same terminology is used, there can be differences in the LOD according to nuances of what definition is used and what type of noise contributes to the measurement and calibration.

The figure below illustrates the relationship between the blank, the limit of detection (LOD), and the limit of quantification (LOQ) by showing the probability density function for normally distributed measurements at the blank, at the LOD defined as 3 * standard deviation of the blank, and at the LOQ defined as 10 * standard deviation of the blank. For a signal at the LOD, the alpha error (probability of false positive) is small (1%). However, the beta error (probability of a false negative) is 50% for a sample that has a concentration at the LOD (red line). This means a sample could contain an impurity at the LOD, but there is a 50% chance that a measurement would give a result less than the LOD. At the LOQ (blue line), there is minimal chance of a false negative.

Source: Wikipedia

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What does NLP mean?

NLP means Neuro-linguistic programming

NLPs creators claim there is a connection between neurological processes (neuro-), language (linguistic) and behavioural patterns learned through experience (programming), and that these can be changed to achieve specific goals in life. They also claim that NLP methodology can model the skills of exceptional people, allowing anyone to acquire those skills. And that NLP can treat problems such as phobias, depression, tic disorders, psychosomatic illnesses, near-sightedness, allergy, common cold, and learning disorders.

There is no scientific evidence supporting the claims made by NLP advocates and it has been discredited as a pseudoscience by experts.

Source: Wikipedia

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What is Turducken?

Turducken is a dish

Turducken (sometimes know as a three bird roast) is a dish consisting of a deboned chicken stuffed into a deboned duck, further stuffed into a deboned turkey. Gooducken is a traditional English variant, replacing turkey with goose.

The word turducken is a portmanteau of turkey, duck, and chicken. The dish is a form of engastration, which is a recipe method in which one animal is stuffed inside the gastric passage of another.

The thoracic cavity of the chicken/game hen and the rest of the gaps are stuffed, sometimes with a highly seasoned breadcrumb mixture or sausage meat, although some versions have a different stuffing for each bird. The result is a fairly solid layered poultry dish, suitable for cooking by braising, roasting, grilling, or barbecuing.

Source: Wikipedia

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What is Holacracy?

Holacracy is a organizational system

Holacracy is a specific social technology or system of organizational governance developed by HolacracyOne, LLC in which authority and decision-making are distributed throughout a holarchy of self-organizing teams rather than being vested in a management hierarchy

Holacracy has been adopted in for-profit and non-profit organizations in Australia, France, Germany, New Zealand, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

Source: Wikipedia

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Golden Globes

What is Golden Globe?

The Golden Globes is an Award show

The Golden Globe Award is an American accolade bestowed by the 93 members of the Hollywood Foreign Press Association (HFPA) recognizing excellence in film and television, both domestic and foreign

The annual formal ceremony and dinner at which the awards are presented are a major part of the film industrys awards season, which culminates each year with the Academy Awards.

The 73rd Golden Globe Awards, honoring the best in film and television in 2015, were broadcast live on January 10, 2016. Ricky Gervais hosted the show for the fourth time.

Source: Wikipedia

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Faraday Future

What is Faraday Future?

Faraday Future is an American start-up technology company focused on the development of intelligent electric vehicles

Faraday Future was established in 2014 and is headquartered in Gardena, California. Since its inception in 2014, the company grew to 1000 employees by January 2016. Their financial partners are LeEco, a Chinese consumer electronics company, led by Jia Yueting.

Faraday Future is named for one of the founding principles of electric motor technology known as Faradays law of induction. Faradays Law is in turn named after English scientist Michael Faraday who discovered electromagnetic induction.

The company debuted its first concept vehicle, the single-seat FFZERO1, at the January 2016 Consumer Electronics Show but did not announce production schedules.

Source: Wikipedia

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What is LIRR?

LIRR is the Long Island Rail Road Company a commuter rail system in southeastern New York

The Long Island Rail Road (reporting mark LI), legally known as the Long Island Rail Road Company and often abbreviated as the LIRR, is a commuter rail system in southeastern New York, stretching from Manhattan to the eastern tip of Suffolk County on Long Island. With an average weekday ridership of 337,800 passengers in 2014, it is the busiest commuter railroad in North America. It is also one of the worlds few commuter systems that runs 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, year-round. It is publicly owned by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority, who refer to it as MTA Long Island Rail Road.

The LIRR logo combines the circular MTA logo with the text Long Island Rail Road, and appears on the sides of trains. The LIRR is one of two commuter rail systems the MTA owns, the other being Metro-North Railroad. Established in 1834 and having operated continuously since then, it is the second oldest US railroad still operating under its original name and charter.

There are 124 stations, and more than 700 miles (1,100 km) of track, on its two lines to the two forks of the island and eight major branches, with the passenger railroad system totaling 319 miles (513 km) of route.

Source: Wikipedia

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What does OBE mean?

OBE means Order of the British Empire

King George V wanted to be able to honour the thousands of people who helped to win the First World War, but were not soldiers. These days people who have made rewarding contributions to the arts and sciences, work with charitable and welfare organisations, and public service outside the Civil Service can be rewarded an OBE.

People receiving an OBE may call themselves ‘Sir’ (male) or ‘Dame’ (female). If the person is not a citizen of a country where the Queen is Head of State, the award is called honorary, and the holder cannot use the title before their name. For example Terry Wogan became a British citizen and was therefore called Sir Terry Wogan, but Bob Geldof is still Irish, and is not “Sir Bob”. Tennisplayer Andy Murray and runner Mo Farrah are some of the latest people having received an OBE.

Source: Wikipedia

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Dry January

What is Dry January?

Dry January is a custom of abstaining from alcohol for the month of January

Dry January is a custom of abstaining from alcohol for the month of January, invented by Liam Kelly while at University in the early 90s, particularly practised in the United Kingdom

The custom, as a formal entity, appears to be relatively recent, being described as having sprung up in recent years even in 2014. Although the Finnish government launched a campaign called Sober January already in 1942 as part of its war effort. The term Dry January was registered as a trademark by the charity Alcohol Concern in mid-2014; the first ever Dry January campaign by Alcohol Concern occurred in January 2013. In the leadup to the January 2015 campaign, for the first time Alcohol Concern partnered with Public Health England.

In January 2014 according to Alcohol Concern, which initiated the campaign, over 17,000 Britons stopped drinking for that month. While there is controversy as to the efficacy and benefits of the practice, a 2014 survey by the University of Sussex found that six months following January 2014, out of 900 surveyed participants in the custom, 72% had kept harmful drinking episodes down and 4% were still not drinking.

Source: Wikipedia

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Winter solstice

What is winter solstice?

Winter solstice is an astronomical phenomenon marking the shortest day and the longest night of the year

Solstices happen twice a year – once around June 21 and again around December 21. In the Northern Hemisphere, the December Solstice is the winter solstice and the shortest day of the year. In the Southern Hemisphere, it is summer solstice and the longest day of the year, because equinoxes and solstices are opposite on opposite sides of the planet.

The term solstice comes from the Latin word solstitium which means: ‘the Sun stands still’. This is because on this day, the Sun reaches its southern-most position as seen from the Earth. The Sun seems to stand still at the Tropic of Capricorn and then reverses its direction. Another common name for solstice is the day the Sun turns around. The good thing about the winter solstice is of course the fact that the days get longer again.

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