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What is Bratva?

Russian organized crime or Russian mafia

 rossiyskaya mafiya, sometimes referred to as Bratva ( brotherhood), is a collective of various organized crime elements originating in the former Soviet Union.

Organized crime in Russia began in the imperial period of the Tsars, but it was not until the Soviet era that vory v zakone (thieves-in-law) emerged as leaders of prison groups in gulags (Soviet prison labor camps), and their honor code became more defined. After World War II, the death of Joseph Stalin, and the fall of the Soviet Union, more gangs emerged in a flourishing black market, exploiting the unstable governments of the former Republics, and at its highest point, even controlling as much as two-thirds of the Russian economy. Louis Freeh, former director of the FBI, said that the Russian mafia posed the greatest threat to U.S. national security in the mid-1990s.

In modern times, there are as many as 6,000 different groups, with more than 200 of them having a global reach. Criminals of these various groups are either former prison members, corrupt officials and business leaders, people with ethnic ties, or people from the same region with shared criminal experiences and leaders. However, the existence of such groups has been debated. In December 2009, Timur Lakhonin, the head of the Russian National Central Bureau of Interpol, stated Certainly, there is crime involving our former compatriots abroad, but there is no data suggesting that an organized structure of criminal groups comprising former Russians exists abroad, while in August 2010, Alain Bauer, a French criminologist, said that it is one of the best structured criminal organizations in Europe, with a quasi-military operation.

Source: Wikipedia

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What is cryptocurrency?

A cryptocurrency (or crypto currency) is a digital asset

Cryptocurrency is designed to work as a medium of exchange using cryptography to secure the transactions and to control the creation of additional units of the currency

Cryptocurrencies are classified as a subset of digital currencies and are also classified as a subset of alternative currencies and virtual currencies.

Bitcoin became the first decentralized cryptocurrency in 2009. Since then, numerous cryptocurrencies have been created. These are frequently called altcoins, as a blend of bitcoin alternative. Bitcoin and its derivatives use decentralized control as opposed to centralized electronic money/centralized banking systems. The decentralized control is related to the use of bitcoins blockchain transaction database in the role of a distributed ledger.

Source: Wikipedia

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What is Blockchain?

A blockchain is a continuously growing list of records, called blocks, which are linked and secured using cryptography

Each block contains typically a hash pointer as a link to a previous block, a timestamp and transaction data. By design, blockchains are inherently resistant to modification of the data. Functionally, a blockchain can serve as an open, distributed ledger that can record transactions between two parties efficiently and in a verifiable and permanent way. For use as a distributed ledger a blockchain is typically managed by a peer-to-peer network collectively adhering to a protocol for validating new blocks. Once recorded, the data in any given block cannot be altered retroactively without the alteration of all subsequent blocks and a collusion of the network majority.

Blockchains are secure by design and are an example of a distributed computing system with high Byzantine fault tolerance. Decentralized consensus has therefore been achieved with a blockchain. This makes blockchains potentially suitable for the recording of events, medical records, and other records management activities, such as identity management, transaction processing, documenting provenance, or food traceability.

The first distributed blockchain was conceptualised by Satoshi Nakamoto in 2008 and implemented the following year as a core component of the digital currency bitcoin, where it serves as the public ledger for all transactions. The invention of the blockchain for bitcoin made it the first digital currency to solve the double spending problem, without the use of a trusted authority or central server. The bitcoin design has been the inspiration for other applications.

Source: Wikipedia

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What is the Hajj?

The Hajj is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, the most holy city for Muslims

The Hajj is a mandatory religious duty for Muslims that must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by all adult Muslims who are physically and financially capable of undertaking the journey, and can support their family during their absence

It is one of the five pillars of Islam, alongside Shahadah, Salat, Zakat, and Sawm. The Hajj is the largest annual gathering of people in the world. The state of being physically and financially capable of performing the Hajj is called istitaah, and a Muslim who fulfills this condition is called a mustati. The Hajj is a demonstration of the solidarity of the Muslim people, and their submission to God (Allah). The word Hajj means to intend a journey, which connotes both the outward act of a journey and the inward act of intentions.

The pilgrimage occurs from the 8th to 12th (or in some cases 13th) of Dhu al-Hijjah, the last month of the Islamic calendar. Because the Islamic calendar is lunar and the Islamic year is about eleven days shorter than the Gregorian year, the Gregorian date of Hajj changes from year to year. Ihram is the name given to the special spiritual state in which pilgrims wear two white sheets of seamless cloth and abstain from certain actions.

The Hajj is associated with the life of Islamic prophet Muhammad from the 7th century, but the ritual of pilgrimage to Mecca is considered by Muslims to stretch back thousands of years to the time of Abraham. During Hajj, pilgrims join processions of hundreds of thousands of people, who simultaneously converge on Mecca for the week of the Hajj, and perform a series of rituals: each person walks counter-clockwise seven times around the Kaaba (the cube-shaped building and the direction of prayer for the Muslims), runs back and forth between the hills of Safa and Marwah, drinks from the Zamzam Well, goes to the plains of Mount Arafat to stand in vigil, spends a night in the plain of Muzdalifa, and performs symbolic stoning of the devil by throwing stones at three pillars. The pilgrims then shave their heads, perform a ritual of animal sacrifice, and celebrate the three-day global festival of Eid al-Adha.

Source: Wikipedia

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What is cloud-mining?

Cloud Mining is the process of bitcoin mining utilizing a remote datacenter with shared processing power

This type of cloud mining enables users to mine bitcoins or alternative cryptocurrencies without managing the hardware. Since Cloud Mining is provided as a service there is generally some cost and this can result in lower returns for the miner. There are many cloud mining scams.

Source: Wikipedia

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What is Impeachment?

Impeachment is the process by which a legislative body formally levels charges against a high official of Government

Impeachment does not necessarily mean removal from office; it is only a formal statement of charges, akin to an indictment in criminal law, and is thus only the first step towards removal. Once an individual is impeached, he or she must then face the possibility of conviction via legislative vote, which then entails the removal of the individual from office.

Because impeachment and conviction of officials involves an overturning of the normal Constitutional procedures by which individuals achieve high office (election, ratification, or appointment) and because it generally requires a supermajority, it is usually only reserved for those deemed to have committed serious abuses of their office. In the United States, for example, impeachment at the Federal level is reserved for those who may have committed high crimes and misdemeanors. Several Federal officials, including two Presidents (Andrew Johnson and Bill Clinton, who were both acquitted) and several judges, have been impeached over the course of US history. US President Richard Nixon resigned before Watergate scandal impeachment proceedings could begin.

The federal procedure in the United States involves a vote for impeachment in the House of Representatives on a document known as the Article of Impeachment. Each separate grounds will be a separate Article. House members who support the impeachment then appoint managers who will act like prosecutors in the preparation for the Senate hearing. The hearing for removal is conducted in the Senate and in the case of the impeachment of a President, the Chief Justice of the United States presides over the proceedings (otherwise the Vice-president presides) which are conducted as a trial with witnesses being heard under oath or affirmation. The defendant has the right to legal counsel, the right to cross-examine all witnesses and to testify in his or her defense. The senators must also take an oath or affirmation that they will perform their duties honestly and with due diligence. The hearing cannot be conducted without a 50% plus one quorum. After the hearing the deliberations are held in private. Removal requires a two-thirds majority of the Senate.

Source: Wikipedia

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ebay

What is Ebay?

eBay Inc

Ebay is a multinational e-commerce corporation, facilitating online consumer-to-consumer and business-to-consumer sales. It is headquartered in San Jose, California. eBay was founded by Pierre Omidyar in 1995, and became a notable success story of the dot-com bubble. Today it is a multibillion-dollar business with operations in about 30 countries.

The company manages eBay.com, an online auction and shopping website in which people and businesses buy and sell a broad variety of goods and services worldwide. In addition to its auction-style sales, the website has since expanded to include Buy It Now shopping; shopping by UPC, ISBN, or other kind of SKU number (via Half.com); online classified advertisements (via Kijiji or eBay Classifieds); online event ticket trading (via StubHub); and other services. It previously offered online money transfers (via PayPal), which was a wholly owned subsidiary of eBay from 2002 until 2015. The website is free to use for buyers, but sellers are charged fees for listing items and again when those items are sold.

Source: Wikipedia

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What is Spotify?

Spotify is a music, podcast, and video streaming service

It is developed by startup Spotify AB in Stockholm, Sweden. It provides digital rights management-protected content from record labels and media companies. Spotify is a freemium service, meaning that basic features are free with advertisements, while additional features, including improved streaming quality and offline music downloads, are offered via paid subscriptions.

Spotify is available in most of Europe, most of the Americas, Australia, New Zealand and parts of Asia. It is available for most modern devices, including Windows, macOS, and Linux computers, as well as iOS and Android smartphones and tablets. Music can be browsed or searched for via various parameters, such as artist, album, genre, playlist, or record label. Users can create, edit and share playlists, share tracks on social media, and make playlists with other users. Spotify provides access to over 30 million songs. As of June 2016, it has 100 million monthly active users, and as of March 2017, it has 50 million paying subscribers.

Unlike physical or download sales, which pay artists a fixed price per song or album sold, Spotify pays royalties based on the number of artists streams as a proportion of total songs streamed on the service. They distribute approximately 70% of total revenue to rights holders, who then pay artists based on their individual agreements. Spotify has faced criticism from artists and producers, including Taylor Swift and Radiohead singer Thom Yorke, who feel it does not fairly compensate music creators as music sales decline and music streaming increases. In April 2017, as part of its efforts to renegotiate new license deals with record labels for a reported interest in going public, Spotify announced that artists who are part of Universal Music Group will have the ability to make their new album releases exclusively available on the services Premium service tier for a maximum of two weeks.

Source: Wikipedia

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What is Snapchat?

Snapchat is an image messaging and multimedia mobile application

Snapchat is created by Evan Spiegel, Bobby Murphy, and Reggie Brown, former students at Stanford University, and developed by Snap Inc, originally Snapchat Inc. One of the principal concepts of Snapchat is that pictures and messages are only available for a short time before they become inaccessible. The prototype for Snapchat was started by Brown and Spiegel as a project for one of Spiegels classes at Stanford, where Spiegel was a product design major. Beginning as Picaboo, the idea was to create a selfie app (application) which allowed users to share images that were explicitly short-lived and self-deleting. The temporary nature of the pictures would therefore encourage frivolity and emphasize a more natural flow of interaction. When, in April 2011, Spiegel floated the product idea in front of his class as a final project, the classmates focused on the impermanent aspect of the potential product, and balked at the thought of temporary photos. Murphy was eventually brought into the project to write the source code for the application, and Picaboo first launched as an iOS-only app in July 2011 from Evan Spiegels living room (who was still staying at home with his father when not away at school). The application was relaunched two months later under the name Snapchat.

Snapchat evolved into a mix of private messaging and public content, including brand networks, publications, and live events such as sports and music. Nevertheless, according to survey studies conducted in March 2016, the personal oriented messaging was still being accessed by users more than the publicly offered content that was being presented. 71% of users surveyed said that they preferred the app for its chat, messaging, and imaging services, versus 5% who almost exclusively chose the various events, published features, and media content on a daily basis. 24% responded that they accessed all features equally. However, about three quarters of those surveyed were also familiar with the events, media brands, and celebrity content, having a favorable opinion of those areas.

Source: Wikipedia

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What does MOAB mean?

MOAB means Massive Ordnance Air Blast

The GBU-43/B Massive Ordnance Air Blast, commonly known as the Mother of All Bombs is a large-yield conventional (non-nuclear) bomb, developed for the United States military by Albert L. Weimorts, Jr. of the Air Force Research Laboratory. At the time of development, it was touted as the most powerful non-nuclear weapon ever designed. The bomb was designed to be delivered by a C-130 Hercules, primarily the MC-130E Combat Talon I or MC-130H Combat Talon II variants. The MOAB is the largest conventional bomb ever used in combat after being deployed in Afghanistan on 13 April 2017.

In 2007, Russia tested a thermobaric weapon nicknamed the Father of All Bombs; the weapon is claimed to be four times as powerful as the MOAB.

Source: Wikipedia

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